How To Startup Part 8: Exits

Spencer Rascoff

Spencer Rascoff serves as executive chairman of dot.LA. He is an entrepreneur and company leader who co-founded Zillow, Hotwire, dot.LA, Pacaso and Supernova, and who served as Zillow's CEO for a decade. During Spencer's time as CEO, Zillow won dozens of "best places to work" awards as it grew to over 4,500 employees, $3 billion in revenue, and $10 billion in market capitalization. Prior to Zillow, Spencer co-founded and was VP Corporate Development of Hotwire, which was sold to Expedia for $685 million in 2003. Through his startup studio and venture capital firm, 75 & Sunny, Spencer is an active angel investor in over 100 companies and is incubating several more.

How To Startup Part 8: Exits
Image by Master1305/ Shutterstock

Welcome to the last installment in the “How To Startup” series and an often overlooked step when creating a business: exiting. In short, an exit strategy is exactly what it sounds like - a way out, sort of. I say sort of because frequently a sale of a company is just a new beginning, but more on that below. Startups usually seek an exit to generate investment returns for their investors and shareholders (usually including their employees), or sometimes to limit losses. It is important for founders to keep the possibility of an exit in the back of their minds at different stages of the business’ growth. Some startups are “big swings” where founders and their investors believe the idea and the team have the potential to turn the company into a multi-billion dollar public company. But many startups are smaller ideas where a smaller sale is a good outcome and is something always to be explored. It is important for founders to know which of these best describes their company.


As we’ve already learned in previous installments, the most successful entrepreneurs are the ones who plan ahead. So now that your company has traction and growth—or you’re a proactive entrepreneur who wants to get ahead—it’s time to think about an exit for the business.

Types of Exits

There are many different common exit strategies, but ultimately the one you choose will depend on your own business, personal and financial goals. I cover some of the pros and cons of each strategy below.

Liquidation

Failing, but “failing fast” and liquidating can sometimes be the best route to minimize losses for a business. You’ll likely find yourself in one of two scenarios when considering a liquidation: you’re already at the end of your rope - be it financially or otherwise - or you can see the end coming. If you’re fresh out of cash, evaluate how you can responsibly wind down the business for all parties involved - yourself, employees and investors. If you can tell early on that you don’t have product-market fit or traction and you still have cash left, plan to exit early and return money to investors. A great example of this is when Jeffrey Katzenberg returned $350M to investors instead of simply running Quibi until it was out of cash.

Sale or Acquisition

If you plan to sell your company (a.k.a. if it is getting acquired), you can receive payment from the acquirer in cash, stock or a combination of both. The acquirer can pay you cash for the company or you can exchange your stock in your company for shares of stock in the newly combined company. This will let you maintain being an active participant and shareholder as the company continues to grow. It’s not common in tech for acquisitions to involve both cash and stock. If you believe the company is poised to continue scaling, then definitely consider receiving stock as a part of the transaction. A famous example of this is when Facebook purchased Whatsapp for $4B in cash and $12B in Facebook shares in 2014, helping them grow into developing markets. The Facebook stock that Whatsapp shareholders received ended up being worth many multiples of the $12B which it was valued at during the time of the deal.

The amount a startup can sell for is determined by a few factors. Here are a couple of examples of how valuations are determined:

- If it’s a small company worth <$10M, it’s probably an acquihire (the process of acquiring a company primarily to recruit its employees). In this case, acquirers usually value the target based on how many engineers or product people are at the company.

- If it’s a deal worth <$100M, it’s usually priced more on strategic fit than real analysis such as what the target brings to the acquirer. This could be technology, a great team, a new business line they can build on, great potential of the merger, etc. For example, when I was CEO of Zillow we acquired 16 companies, most of which were in the $10M-$100M price range, and we always determined fair value by focusing on the overall level of strategic fit of the target more than evaluating the actual financial results of the target.

- If it’s a bigger deal with >$100M, the target’s financial results are usually benchmarked against other public comps and require real math to analyze. At deals of this size, advisors such as investment bankers usually participate in the deal and bring the analytical rigor and external perspective needed to evaluate the fairness of the deal for both sides.

Sometimes a sale is the end of the road for a company. But more often than not, it is just the beginning of the next chapter. For example, when Zillow acquired StreetEasy, the leading real estate portal in New York, we invested significant resources to grow the company after the acquisition. We added headcount, rebranded the company, invested in advertising and grew it substantially post-acquisition. Far from the sale being the end of the company, it was really just the beginning. Another example is Google’s acquisition of YouTube in 2006 for $1.65B of stock. At the time, YouTube was struggling with a myriad of legal and copyright infringement issues from content owners and was struggling to keep up with user demand. Under Google’s ownership, YouTube cleaned up its content copyright issues, invested tens of millions of dollars in technology to improve the service, and today YouTube is probably worth at least $100 billion under Google’s ownership and stewardship.

Initial Public Offerings (IPOs)

Traditional: Taking a company public is one of the ultimate goals for many founders, but it’s not exactly the finish line. In fact, it’s quite the opposite. For example, I named our IPO preparation at Zillow “Project Step” to emphasize to the team that it was just a “step” along the way towards building a great business.

In an Initial Public Offering, a company sells shares for the first time to public shareholders, and the stock is then traded on a stock exchange. This can be beneficial for a few reasons, such as being able to raise capital, get research reports written about the company and create liquidity for your investors so they can sell their stock. On the flip side, IPOs can be expensive (the fees are usually 5-7% of the amount raised) and come with a lot of uncertainty. One of the biggest challenges with this method is that the IPO window can be open or closed, and is dependent on things out of your control.

If you do pick this method, a piece of advice I often tell founders is to act and operate like a public company well before you actually are one. More on this and IPOs at a later date as I’ll probably do a separate piece on it.

SPAC Merger: A Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC) is another way for a company to go public. With a SPAC, a publicly traded company is created for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing private company. One benefit of going the SPAC route is that, for now, company projections are permitted to be shared with investors during a SPAC merger which allows investors insight into a company’s growth prospects. I say “for now” because the SEC is evaluating this and there is speculation that it will no longer be permissible in the future. Another advantage is that you can select your shareholders through the Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE) process plus receive advice and “sponsorship” from the SPAC itself which can be helpful to the company. The cons of a SPAC process are that it can be difficult to get enough investor focus on the company once you’ve gone public in this way, and SPACs are currently out of favor with investors.

Direct Listing: In a direct listing, a private company converts into being publicly traded but doesn’t actually sell any shares. Companies that choose to go public using this method usually have different goals than those that use an IPO - specifically, they do not need to raise capital through the offering. Direct listings create liquidity for existing shareholders and are usually less expensive than an IPO, but companies miss out on the chance to raise money.

Lessons On Exits

No matter what route you end up taking, when preparing for an exit: Always aim to be on the radar and top of mind for acquirers, understand your cap table and the goals of your shareholders, utilize investment banks and investors as resources and hire great M&A lawyers.

Missed a part or looking to reread? Part 1: Ideation, Part 2: Naming Your Business, Part 3: How To Pitch, Part 4: Surviving A Downturn, Part 5: Minimum Viable Product, Part 6: Product-Market Fit, Part 7: Scaling or read them all.

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🏰 Disney's Epic Investment Stands Out Amidst Gaming Industry Layoffs

Christian Hetrick

Christian Hetrick is dot.LA's Entertainment Tech Reporter. He was formerly a business reporter for the Philadelphia Inquirer and reported on New Jersey politics for the Observer and the Press of Atlantic City.

🔦 Spotlight

In the midst of widespread gaming industry layoffs, a glimmer of positive news emerges as Disney announces a significant move: a $1.5 billion investment in Epic Games. 🏰💰🐭

Image Source: Disney

Disney's $1.5 billion investment in Epic Games, disclosed late Wednesday, signals a strategic alignment aimed at expanding the success of "Fortnite." The deal enhances Epic's growth prospects after financial setbacks, including layoffs, and strengthens the partnership between the two companies. With Disney gaining a larger equity stake in Epic, the collaboration will broaden the integration of beloved Disney franchises like Marvel, Star Wars, Pixar, and Avatar into the game, potentially boosting its appeal and longevity. This significant investment underscores Disney's commitment to interactive entertainment and signifies a shift towards games as a primary revenue stream, aligning with the growing trend of digital engagement among younger demographics. Moreover, the potential for crossover sales of physical Disney products within "Fortnite" and the exploration of new content distribution channels are just some of the opportunities arising from this partnership.

For LA tech, the Disney-Epic Games partnership represents a validation of the region's burgeoning tech and gaming ecosystem. The substantial investment in Epic, who maintains a large Los Angeles office with 1,000+ employees (according to LinkedIn), reflects confidence in the LA’s talent pool and innovation potential. Additionally, this partnership between two industry giants fosters an environment for further collaboration, investment, and growth within LA's tech sector. As Disney and Epic Games deepen their ties and explore new avenues for content integration and distribution, it not only elevates the prominence of LA as a tech hub but also stimulates economic growth and job creation in the region. This partnership highlights LA's unique position as a hub where technology and entertainment converge. With its ability to integrate diverse industries, LA is driving innovation and expansion in digital entertainment. 🚀💸🎮

🤝 Venture Deals

LA Companies

  • ProducePay, a financing and marketplace platform for the fresh produce market, raised a $38M Series D led by Syngenta Group Ventures joined by Commonfund, Highgate Private Equity, G2 Venture Partners, Anterra Capital, Astanor Ventures, Endeavor8, Avenue Venture Opportunities, Avenue Sustainable Solutions, and Red Bear Angels. - learn more
  • Blush, an invite-only dating app that drives users to local businesses on dates, raised a $7M Seed Round from individuals like Naval Ravikant. - learn more
  • Mogul, a startup founded last year that provides an overview of an artist's royalty earnings and identifies areas where money is owed but has not yet been collected, raised a $1.9 million seed round from Wonder Ventures, United Talent Agency, AmplifyLA, and Creator Partners. - learn more
  • Avnos, a hybrid direct air capture startup, raised a $36M Series A led by NextEra Energy and joined by Safran Corporate Ventures, Shell Ventures, Envisioning Partners, and Rusheen Capital Management. - learn more
  • AI.fashion, startup whose mission is to help retailers enhance the online shopping experience by providing consumers with virtual try-ons and personalized fashion recommendations, raised a $3.6M Seed Round led by Neo. - learn more
  • Suma Wealth, startup that aims to demystify financial topics and provide culturally relevant content, virtual experiences, and resources to help Latino users navigate financial challenges and opportunities, raised a $2.2M Seed Round . Radicle Impact led, and was joined by Vamos Ventures, OVO fund and the American Heart Association Impact Fund. - learn more
  • 222, a startup that helps users discover their city and meet new people through unique social experiences, raised a $2.5M Seed Round. Investors included 1517 Fund, General Catalyst, Best Nights VC, Scrum Ventures, and Upfront Ventures. - learn more
  • LimaCharlie, a security operations cloud platform, raised a $10.2M Series A led by Sands Capital. - learn more
  • Polycam, an app that uses a smartphone’s sensors to capture 3D scans of objects, raised an $18M Series A co-led by Left Lane Capital and Adjacent, and joined by Adobe Ventures and individuals like Chad Hurley and Shaun Maguire. -learn more.

LA Venture Funds

Actively Raising

  • ReelCall, Inc., an entertainment technology company focused on powerful apps and platforms that help build and maintain the professional network of connections vital to career growth, is raising a $850K Pre-Seed Round. - learn more
  • CZero, a startup building software to decarbonize logistics for logistics businesses and goods business through a vetted marketplace and optimization software. - learn more
  • Couri, a technology startup addressing last-mile delivery issues, is raising a $450K Pre-Seed Round at a $2.2M post money valuation. - learn more
  • Sweetie, a marketplace to help people plan date nights, is raising a $1.5M Pre Seed Round. - learn more
  • StartupStarter, an investment platform that provides real-time data and analytics on startups, is raising an $850K Angel Round. - learn more

If you’re a founder raising money in Los Angeles, give us a shout, and we’d love to include you in the newsletter!

Venture Waves, Climate Tech Wins, and Silicon Beach's Ongoing Evolution

Christian Hetrick

Christian Hetrick is dot.LA's Entertainment Tech Reporter. He was formerly a business reporter for the Philadelphia Inquirer and reported on New Jersey politics for the Observer and the Press of Atlantic City.

Anduril Seeks $1.5B in VC Funds

Defense company Anduril Industries Inc., based in Costa Mesa and founded by Palmer Luckey, is seeking to raise $1.5 billion in fresh funds to boost its valuation to $12.5 billion or more, according to sources quoted by The Information. This fundraising effort, if successful, would mark one of the largest venture capital rounds of the year.

Image Source: Anduril

Anduril recently secured a contract to develop and test small unmanned fighter jet prototypes under the Air Force’s Collaborative Combat Aircraft (CCA) program, beating out major defense companies like Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman. Alongside General Atomics, Anduril will design, manufacture, and test these aircraft, with a final multibillion-dollar production decision expected in fiscal year 2026. This program aims to deliver at least 1,000 combat aircraft to fly in concert with manned platforms and is part of the Air Force’s Next Generation Air Dominance initiative. Central to Anduril’s success in this contract is the Fury autonomous air vehicle, acquired through the purchase of Blue Force Technologies. This victory underscores Anduril's rapid advancement in the defense sector, aligning with Luckey's vision of building faster and more cost-effective defense assets. - learn more

Los Angeles Ranks Number 1 in Emerging Climate Tech Hub

The 2024 Emerging Climate Tech Hubs Report by Revolution highlights Los Angeles as a burgeoning center for climate tech innovation. LA's growth in this sector is driven by its diverse talent pool, strong research institutions, and a culture of environmental consciousness. The city's unique mix of legacy industries, such as entertainment and aerospace, alongside emerging tech companies, positions it as a pivotal player in the climate tech landscape. This shift reflects a broader trend of decentralized climate tech funding across the U.S., reducing the historical dominance of California's traditional hubs. - learn more

Silicon Beach: Looking Back, Moving Forward

Assessing the overall health of the startup market is challenging, especially as venture capital funding has decreased by an average of 61% from 2021 to 2023 across the top VC markets in the US. Markets with robust ecosystems in AI, SaaS, Biotech, Healthtech, and Fintech appear to be weathering the downturn better than those focused on Consumer and Gaming industries, areas where Los Angeles traditionally excels.

Percent Change In VC Funding By Region

CB Insights

LA Times paints a rather bleak outlook on the Los Angeles tech scene noting venture capital funding in Greater Los Angeles plummeted 73% from 2021 to 2022. Silicon Beach, once a vibrant tech corridor, currently faces high vacancy rates and lacks late-stage financiers, especially in the AI sector. However, there are positive signs, including growth in aerospace startups and increased venture capital investment in early 2024, suggesting a potential rebound for LA's tech ecosystem.

While LA may not be exceeding expectations during this period, its tech ecosystem warrants a nuanced evaluation, given the broader market dynamics and its strong performance in specific sectors. Reach out to us with your thoughts.

🚀 SpaceX gears up for another stellar year, active raises, and more

Christian Hetrick

Christian Hetrick is dot.LA's Entertainment Tech Reporter. He was formerly a business reporter for the Philadelphia Inquirer and reported on New Jersey politics for the Observer and the Press of Atlantic City.

Happy Friday Los Angeles! You made it through the first week of 2024!

🔦 Spotlight

Elon Musk may be a divisive (albeit entertaining) figure, but the continued success of SpaceX is pivotal for the aerospace industry in Los Angeles and more broadly around the world.

Image Source: SpaceX webcast

What happened with SpaceX in 2023?

  • Elon Musk challenged Facebook founder, Mark Zuckerberg to a cage fight.
  • SpaceX launched 96 successful missions with its Falcon series of rockets, a 57% increase over its previous annual record.
  • SpaceX conducted two test flights of the largest and most powerful rocket ever built, Starship.
  • Roughly two-thirds of SpaceX's launches in 2023 were devoted to building out Starlink, the company's satellite-internet megaconstellation.
  • Isaacson’s Elon Musk biography was published in September including everything from Musk’s tumultuous relationship with his father to his work ethic and “demon mode”.

Moving forward what can we expect from SpaceX and its controversial founder? Continued innovation pushing the aerospace industry to new limits? Yes. More drama? Without a doubt.

Here is some of what is to come in 2024:

🤝 Venture Deals

Just Announced

Check back next week!

LA Exits

  • CG Oncology, an Irvine, CA-based developer of immunotherapies for bladder cancer, filed for a $100M IPO. It plans to list on the Nasdaq (CGON) with Morgan Stanley as left lead underwriter, and has raised around $317m in VC funding. - learn more
  • McNally Capital agreed to sell Advanced Micro Instruments, a Costa Mesa, CA-based maker of gas analyzers and sensing technologies, to Enpro (NYSE: NPO). - learn more

Actively Raising

  • ReelCall, Inc., an entertainment technology company focused on powerful apps and platforms that help build and maintain the professional network of connections vital to career growth, is raising a $850K Pre-Seed Round. - learn more
  • CZero, a hard-tech startup that is developing a technology for decarbonizing natural gas, is raising a $1.5M Seed Round. - learn more
  • Couri, a technology startup addressing last-mile delivery issues, is raising a $450K Pre-Seed Round at a $2.2M post money valuation. - learn more
  • Sweetie, a marketplace to help people plan date nights, is raising a $250K Angel Round. - learn more
  • StartupStarter, an investment platform that provides real-time data and analytics on startups, is raising an $850K Angel Round. - learn more

If you’re a founder raising money in Los Angeles, give us a shout, and we’d love to include you in the newsletter!

📅 LA Tech Calendar

Sunday, January 7th

Wednesday, January 10th

  • Startup Cafe: Networking with a Kick - Entrepreneurs, Startups, and Tech Enthusiasts join together to meet and connect with like-minded people, industry professionals and investors, while enjoying a nice cup of coffee in Venice at The KINN. This week’s interactive discussion about AI’s evolution in entertainment will feature Dr. Sam Khoze and Rachel Joy Victor.
  • Venice Tech Happy Hour- Join Startup Coil and FoundrHaus Wednesday evening and enjoy the sunset from the rooftop, grab a bite overlooking Abbot Kinney, and mingle with other tech enthusiasts and entrepreneurs by the bar on the patio.

Have an awesome event coming up? Reach out to be featured on next week’s Newsletter!

📙 What We’re Reading

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