How Glendale-Based Night School Got Snapped Up As Netflix's First Gaming Studio

Ian Carlos Campbell
Ian Campbell is a writer based in Southern California. He covered news for The Verge as part of the inaugural class of the Vox Media Fellowship. He currently freelances and works part-time writing reviews for Input Magazine.
Night School

Netflix’s newest gaming studio started more than seven years ago when Sean Krankel got laid off from Disney.

Krankel worked in design at Disney Interactive and Vivendi Universal Games. While his cousin and friend Adam Hines wrote at the storied adventure game developer Telltale Games on projects like “The Wolf Among Us” and “Tales from the Borderlands.”

Both were looking for something new, and when Krankel lost his job, they decided to create Night School, a Glendale-based studio that would try to do things with storytelling that other studios hadn’t.


Krankel took on the role of CEO, while Hines became creative director. They brought in gaming veterans Heather Gross as the art lead and Bryant Cannon as lead developer.

The through-line for Night School is story: elevating player choice in much the same way the studios they share a lineage with did. The studio puts the focus on the messy, complicated and overlapping ways a story is communicated through dialogue, whether between unique quirky characters, or occasionally, the game and the player themselves. That also extends to how the studio’s team members work with each other to this day. The approach attracted Netflix, which acquired them for an undisclosed amount in September.

Neither Krankel nor the other staff members contacted for this piece could go into detail about Night School’s new position at Netflix either. But the move hasn’t changed their conversational dynamic. “People should constantly be talking,” Krankel said. “If you think you’re talking too much: you’re still not talking enough.”

That dialogue-first philosophy was evident in Night School’s first game, 2016’s “Oxenfree.” A supernatural thriller set on a local tourist trap island, “Oxenfree” makes good on Hines and Krankel’s early ideas by featuring a near-constant stream of conversation. You play Alex, a teenage girl trying to adapt to big changes in her life. What’s supposed to be one night of teenage mischief turns into an increasingly unsettling series of encounters with ghosts trying to communicate from beyond. The main crux of the game, aside from solving puzzles with a handheld radio, is navigating conversations from the thousands upon thousands of words Hines wrote for the game’s script. You choose one of three possible text bubbles at junctures in each conversation, slightly adjusting the story as it goes along.

The biggest challenge making that happen, according to Krankel, was “building the tools that would empower our designers to make the game while we were making the game.” Communication became key (along with proper documentation of all the design decisions that were made).

Oxenfree,” available on Windows, MacOS, Xbox One and Nintendo Switch, was a surprise hit. Night School declined to share current sales numbers, but previously announced that the game had sold 1.5 million copies between 2016 and 2019. “Oxenfree” also cleaned up with the critics and the studio’s peers, winning “Excellence in Visual Art'' at the Independent Games Festival Awards in 2016, and scoring a nomination for “Best Debut” and “Best Narrative” at the Game Developers Choice Awards in 2017.

“Oxenfree is a smartly written coming-of-age mystery that holds promise for the future of dialogue-as-game.” Polygon wrote when they named the game one of the best of the last decade. That promise has borne out.

Night School Studio has since grown to 24 full-time employees and released four games, with a fifth on the way. And things could soon get even more busy: In September, Netflix announced it had acquired the company, marking the streaming giant’s first foray into gaming.

The studio has “a track record of successful development and in-house skills” that likely attracted Netflix, said Piers Harding-Rolls, game industry research director at Ampere Analysis.

“The deep narrative and graphical adventure nature of Oxenfree could translate well to video,” he said.

How Night School Came to Netflix

In some ways, the Netflix deal might have been born out of Night School’s relationship with another TV giant.

The immediate follow-up to “Oxenfree,” “Mr. Robot: 1.51exfiltrati0n,” also came out in 2016. A mobile game adapted from USA Network’s hit hacker drama, “Mr. Robot: 1.51exfiltrati0n” places the player into the story, rather than having them play as someone else. Using a fake phone operating system and messaging app, Night School adapted earlier ideas it had for a dating game to tell a story asynchronously across multiple days in the lead-up to the world-altering hack that happens at the end of “Mr. Robot”’s first season. The game is a departure from the studio’s style, but in a way, an even better example of its idea about conversation and dialogue — without a dynamic art style, having intriguing conversations became the whole game.

“Mr. Robot: 1.51exfiltrati0n” allowed Night School to collaborate with the show’s creator Sam Esmail, and brought the studio in contact with Hines’ former employer, Telltale Games. Night School reportedly worked on a companion “Stranger Things” mobile game to accompany Telltale’s own project in the years that followed. In the arrangement, Telltale acted as both publisher and liaison between Night School and Netflix. When Telltale Games went under in 2018, Night School’s work with Netflix’s hit show ended. Still, both the “Mr. Robot” and “Stranger Things” projects proved that the studio was able to work with existing properties.

It may have also put Night School on Netflix’s radar. Krankel contends that Night School was in conversation with Netflix about various projects six or seven months before the Netflix deal came about. “I don't even know if they knew that we were making a Stranger Things game," Krankel told “Game Informer” following the acquisition.

Serendipity or not, the match makes sense. Netflix and Night School have some important opinions in common. Existing interactive Netflix projects like “Bandersnatch” or even “Minecraft: Story Mode” (a Telltale game playable on Netflix) put the focus on player choice. Night School has also produced plenty of world-building right within the wheelhouse of Netflix’s most popular genre properties. An interest in the supernatural and the interior lives of young adults are just two reasons why the creators of “Oxenfree” might have felt comfortable making a “Stranger Things” game (and maybe making another one again down the road).

Night School announced its current project in April 2021. The studio plans to return to the game it made its name on with a sequel called “Oxenfree II: Lost Signals.” The follow-up focuses on an entirely new set of characters, loosely tied to the first, and carries over the distinctive walk-and-talk dialogue and radio mechanics.

Whether “Oxenfree II” eventually shows up as part of Netflix Games – free playable mobile games available with just a Netflix subscription, managed inside the Netflix app –– remains to be seen. Night School has developed for mobile before and even released console titles like “Oxenfree” on iOS. (Netflix did not respond to a request for comment on its plans for Night School, or the studio's existing titles.)

In the short term, Night School’s community director Sara Hebert says development is continuing on “Oxenfree II” uninterrupted, just as Night School promised when both companies announced they were joining forces. “Everything is indeed so new and it’s only been a few short weeks,” Hebert shared via email. “Day-to-day, our studio remains focused on creating great games and maintaining our studio culture.”

Ultimately, working with Netflix is an opportunity for a small studio to get its games in front of the streaming service’s millions of subscribers. Netflix offers “an unprecedented canvas to create and deliver excellent entertainment to millions of people,” Krankel said in his announcement of the acquisition. Now Night School just has to keep building.

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🏰 Disney's Epic Investment Stands Out Amidst Gaming Industry Layoffs

Christian Hetrick

Christian Hetrick is dot.LA's Entertainment Tech Reporter. He was formerly a business reporter for the Philadelphia Inquirer and reported on New Jersey politics for the Observer and the Press of Atlantic City.

🔦 Spotlight

In the midst of widespread gaming industry layoffs, a glimmer of positive news emerges as Disney announces a significant move: a $1.5 billion investment in Epic Games. 🏰💰🐭

Image Source: Disney

Disney's $1.5 billion investment in Epic Games, disclosed late Wednesday, signals a strategic alignment aimed at expanding the success of "Fortnite." The deal enhances Epic's growth prospects after financial setbacks, including layoffs, and strengthens the partnership between the two companies. With Disney gaining a larger equity stake in Epic, the collaboration will broaden the integration of beloved Disney franchises like Marvel, Star Wars, Pixar, and Avatar into the game, potentially boosting its appeal and longevity. This significant investment underscores Disney's commitment to interactive entertainment and signifies a shift towards games as a primary revenue stream, aligning with the growing trend of digital engagement among younger demographics. Moreover, the potential for crossover sales of physical Disney products within "Fortnite" and the exploration of new content distribution channels are just some of the opportunities arising from this partnership.

For LA tech, the Disney-Epic Games partnership represents a validation of the region's burgeoning tech and gaming ecosystem. The substantial investment in Epic, who maintains a large Los Angeles office with 1,000+ employees (according to LinkedIn), reflects confidence in the LA’s talent pool and innovation potential. Additionally, this partnership between two industry giants fosters an environment for further collaboration, investment, and growth within LA's tech sector. As Disney and Epic Games deepen their ties and explore new avenues for content integration and distribution, it not only elevates the prominence of LA as a tech hub but also stimulates economic growth and job creation in the region. This partnership highlights LA's unique position as a hub where technology and entertainment converge. With its ability to integrate diverse industries, LA is driving innovation and expansion in digital entertainment. 🚀💸🎮

🤝 Venture Deals

LA Companies

  • ProducePay, a financing and marketplace platform for the fresh produce market, raised a $38M Series D led by Syngenta Group Ventures joined by Commonfund, Highgate Private Equity, G2 Venture Partners, Anterra Capital, Astanor Ventures, Endeavor8, Avenue Venture Opportunities, Avenue Sustainable Solutions, and Red Bear Angels. - learn more
  • Blush, an invite-only dating app that drives users to local businesses on dates, raised a $7M Seed Round from individuals like Naval Ravikant. - learn more
  • Mogul, a startup founded last year that provides an overview of an artist's royalty earnings and identifies areas where money is owed but has not yet been collected, raised a $1.9 million seed round from Wonder Ventures, United Talent Agency, AmplifyLA, and Creator Partners. - learn more
  • Avnos, a hybrid direct air capture startup, raised a $36M Series A led by NextEra Energy and joined by Safran Corporate Ventures, Shell Ventures, Envisioning Partners, and Rusheen Capital Management. - learn more
  • AI.fashion, startup whose mission is to help retailers enhance the online shopping experience by providing consumers with virtual try-ons and personalized fashion recommendations, raised a $3.6M Seed Round led by Neo. - learn more
  • Suma Wealth, startup that aims to demystify financial topics and provide culturally relevant content, virtual experiences, and resources to help Latino users navigate financial challenges and opportunities, raised a $2.2M Seed Round . Radicle Impact led, and was joined by Vamos Ventures, OVO fund and the American Heart Association Impact Fund. - learn more
  • 222, a startup that helps users discover their city and meet new people through unique social experiences, raised a $2.5M Seed Round. Investors included 1517 Fund, General Catalyst, Best Nights VC, Scrum Ventures, and Upfront Ventures. - learn more
  • LimaCharlie, a security operations cloud platform, raised a $10.2M Series A led by Sands Capital. - learn more
  • Polycam, an app that uses a smartphone’s sensors to capture 3D scans of objects, raised an $18M Series A co-led by Left Lane Capital and Adjacent, and joined by Adobe Ventures and individuals like Chad Hurley and Shaun Maguire. -learn more.

LA Venture Funds

Actively Raising

  • ReelCall, Inc., an entertainment technology company focused on powerful apps and platforms that help build and maintain the professional network of connections vital to career growth, is raising a $850K Pre-Seed Round. - learn more
  • CZero, a startup building software to decarbonize logistics for logistics businesses and goods business through a vetted marketplace and optimization software. - learn more
  • Couri, a technology startup addressing last-mile delivery issues, is raising a $450K Pre-Seed Round at a $2.2M post money valuation. - learn more
  • Sweetie, a marketplace to help people plan date nights, is raising a $1.5M Pre Seed Round. - learn more
  • StartupStarter, an investment platform that provides real-time data and analytics on startups, is raising an $850K Angel Round. - learn more

If you’re a founder raising money in Los Angeles, give us a shout, and we’d love to include you in the newsletter!

Venture Waves, Climate Tech Wins, and Silicon Beach's Ongoing Evolution

Christian Hetrick

Christian Hetrick is dot.LA's Entertainment Tech Reporter. He was formerly a business reporter for the Philadelphia Inquirer and reported on New Jersey politics for the Observer and the Press of Atlantic City.

Anduril Seeks $1.5B in VC Funds

Defense company Anduril Industries Inc., based in Costa Mesa and founded by Palmer Luckey, is seeking to raise $1.5 billion in fresh funds to boost its valuation to $12.5 billion or more, according to sources quoted by The Information. This fundraising effort, if successful, would mark one of the largest venture capital rounds of the year.

Image Source: Anduril

Anduril recently secured a contract to develop and test small unmanned fighter jet prototypes under the Air Force’s Collaborative Combat Aircraft (CCA) program, beating out major defense companies like Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman. Alongside General Atomics, Anduril will design, manufacture, and test these aircraft, with a final multibillion-dollar production decision expected in fiscal year 2026. This program aims to deliver at least 1,000 combat aircraft to fly in concert with manned platforms and is part of the Air Force’s Next Generation Air Dominance initiative. Central to Anduril’s success in this contract is the Fury autonomous air vehicle, acquired through the purchase of Blue Force Technologies. This victory underscores Anduril's rapid advancement in the defense sector, aligning with Luckey's vision of building faster and more cost-effective defense assets. - learn more

Los Angeles Ranks Number 1 in Emerging Climate Tech Hub

The 2024 Emerging Climate Tech Hubs Report by Revolution highlights Los Angeles as a burgeoning center for climate tech innovation. LA's growth in this sector is driven by its diverse talent pool, strong research institutions, and a culture of environmental consciousness. The city's unique mix of legacy industries, such as entertainment and aerospace, alongside emerging tech companies, positions it as a pivotal player in the climate tech landscape. This shift reflects a broader trend of decentralized climate tech funding across the U.S., reducing the historical dominance of California's traditional hubs. - learn more

Silicon Beach: Looking Back, Moving Forward

Assessing the overall health of the startup market is challenging, especially as venture capital funding has decreased by an average of 61% from 2021 to 2023 across the top VC markets in the US. Markets with robust ecosystems in AI, SaaS, Biotech, Healthtech, and Fintech appear to be weathering the downturn better than those focused on Consumer and Gaming industries, areas where Los Angeles traditionally excels.

Percent Change In VC Funding By Region

CB Insights

LA Times paints a rather bleak outlook on the Los Angeles tech scene noting venture capital funding in Greater Los Angeles plummeted 73% from 2021 to 2022. Silicon Beach, once a vibrant tech corridor, currently faces high vacancy rates and lacks late-stage financiers, especially in the AI sector. However, there are positive signs, including growth in aerospace startups and increased venture capital investment in early 2024, suggesting a potential rebound for LA's tech ecosystem.

While LA may not be exceeding expectations during this period, its tech ecosystem warrants a nuanced evaluation, given the broader market dynamics and its strong performance in specific sectors. Reach out to us with your thoughts.

🚀 SpaceX gears up for another stellar year, active raises, and more

Christian Hetrick

Christian Hetrick is dot.LA's Entertainment Tech Reporter. He was formerly a business reporter for the Philadelphia Inquirer and reported on New Jersey politics for the Observer and the Press of Atlantic City.

Happy Friday Los Angeles! You made it through the first week of 2024!

🔦 Spotlight

Elon Musk may be a divisive (albeit entertaining) figure, but the continued success of SpaceX is pivotal for the aerospace industry in Los Angeles and more broadly around the world.

Image Source: SpaceX webcast

What happened with SpaceX in 2023?

  • Elon Musk challenged Facebook founder, Mark Zuckerberg to a cage fight.
  • SpaceX launched 96 successful missions with its Falcon series of rockets, a 57% increase over its previous annual record.
  • SpaceX conducted two test flights of the largest and most powerful rocket ever built, Starship.
  • Roughly two-thirds of SpaceX's launches in 2023 were devoted to building out Starlink, the company's satellite-internet megaconstellation.
  • Isaacson’s Elon Musk biography was published in September including everything from Musk’s tumultuous relationship with his father to his work ethic and “demon mode”.

Moving forward what can we expect from SpaceX and its controversial founder? Continued innovation pushing the aerospace industry to new limits? Yes. More drama? Without a doubt.

Here is some of what is to come in 2024:

🤝 Venture Deals

Just Announced

Check back next week!

LA Exits

  • CG Oncology, an Irvine, CA-based developer of immunotherapies for bladder cancer, filed for a $100M IPO. It plans to list on the Nasdaq (CGON) with Morgan Stanley as left lead underwriter, and has raised around $317m in VC funding. - learn more
  • McNally Capital agreed to sell Advanced Micro Instruments, a Costa Mesa, CA-based maker of gas analyzers and sensing technologies, to Enpro (NYSE: NPO). - learn more

Actively Raising

  • ReelCall, Inc., an entertainment technology company focused on powerful apps and platforms that help build and maintain the professional network of connections vital to career growth, is raising a $850K Pre-Seed Round. - learn more
  • CZero, a hard-tech startup that is developing a technology for decarbonizing natural gas, is raising a $1.5M Seed Round. - learn more
  • Couri, a technology startup addressing last-mile delivery issues, is raising a $450K Pre-Seed Round at a $2.2M post money valuation. - learn more
  • Sweetie, a marketplace to help people plan date nights, is raising a $250K Angel Round. - learn more
  • StartupStarter, an investment platform that provides real-time data and analytics on startups, is raising an $850K Angel Round. - learn more

If you’re a founder raising money in Los Angeles, give us a shout, and we’d love to include you in the newsletter!

📅 LA Tech Calendar

Sunday, January 7th

Wednesday, January 10th

  • Startup Cafe: Networking with a Kick - Entrepreneurs, Startups, and Tech Enthusiasts join together to meet and connect with like-minded people, industry professionals and investors, while enjoying a nice cup of coffee in Venice at The KINN. This week’s interactive discussion about AI’s evolution in entertainment will feature Dr. Sam Khoze and Rachel Joy Victor.
  • Venice Tech Happy Hour- Join Startup Coil and FoundrHaus Wednesday evening and enjoy the sunset from the rooftop, grab a bite overlooking Abbot Kinney, and mingle with other tech enthusiasts and entrepreneurs by the bar on the patio.

Have an awesome event coming up? Reach out to be featured on next week’s Newsletter!

📙 What We’re Reading

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